Designing solutions through programming standards

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Introduction[edit]

These are the standards for Designing solutions through programming. Pay attention to the command term at the start of each standard. It describes at what level you must understand the standard. Please reference levels of knowing for a deeper discussion of this important idea.

Many of these standards are used from the IB. IB Diploma Program Computer science guide (first examinations 2014). Cardiff, Wales, United Kingdom: International Baccalaureate Organization. January 2012.

Assessment Statement Big Idea
System fundamentals
Identify the context for which a new system is planned. System fundamentals
Describe the need for change management. System fundamentals
Outline compatibility issues resulting from situations including legacy systems or business mergers. System fundamentals
Compare the implementation of systems using a client’s hardware with hosting systems remotely. System fundamentals
Evaluate alternative installation processes. System fundamentals
Discuss problems that may arise as a part of data migration. System fundamentals
Suggest various types of testing. System fundamentals
Describe the importance of user documentation. System fundamentals
Evaluate different methods of providing user documentation. System fundamentals
Evaluate different methods of delivering user training. System fundamentals
Identify a range of causes of data loss. System fundamentals
Outline the consequences of data loss in a specified situation. System fundamentals
Describe a range of methods that can be used to prevent data loss. System fundamentals
Describe strategies for managing releases and updates. System fundamentals
Define the terms: hardware, software, peripheral, network, human resources. System fundamentals
Describe the roles that a computer can take in a networked world. System fundamentals
Discuss the social and ethical issues associated with a networked world. System fundamentals
Identify the relevant stakeholders when planning a new system. System fundamentals
Describe methods of obtaining requirements from stakeholders. System fundamentals
Describe appropriate techniques for gathering the information needed to arrive at a workable solution. System fundamentals
Construct suitable representations to illustrate system requirements. System fundamentals
Describe the purpose of prototypes to demonstrate the proposed system to the client. System fundamentals
Discuss the importance of iteration during the design process. System fundamentals
Explain the possible consequences of failing to involve the end-user in the design process. System fundamentals
Discuss the social and ethical issues associated with the introduction of new IT systems. System fundamentals
Define the term usability. System fundamentals
Identify a range of usability problems with commonly used digital devices. System fundamentals
Identify methods that can be used to improve the accessibility of systems. System fundamentals
Identify a range of usability problems that can occur in a system. System fundamentals
Discuss the moral, ethical, social, economic and environmental implications of the interaction between humans and machines. System fundamentals
Computer Organization
Outline the architecture and function of the CPU, ALU, CU and the registers within the CPU. Computer organization
Describe primary memory. Computer organization
Explain the use of cache memory. Computer organization
Explain the machine instruction cycle. Computer organization
Identify the need for persistent storage. Computer organization
Describe the main functions of an operating system. Computer organization
Outline the use of a range of application software. Computer organization
Identify common features of applications. Computer organization
Define the terms: bit, byte, binary, denary/decimal, hexadecimal. Computer organization
Outline the way in which data is represented in the computer. Computer organization
Define the Boolean operators: AND, OR, NOT, NAND, NOR and XOR. Computer organization
Construct truth tables using the above operators. Computer organization
Construct a logic diagram using AND, OR, NOT, NAND, NOR and XOR gates. Computer organization
Networks
Identify different types of networks. Networks
Outline the importance of standards in the construction of networks. Networks
Describe how communication over networks is broken down into different layers. Networks
Identify the technologies required to provide a VPN. Networks
Evaluate the use of a VPN. Networks
Define the terms: protocol, data packet. Networks
Explain why protocols are necessary. Networks
Explain why the speed of data transmission across a network can vary. Networks
Explain why compression of data is often necessary when transmitting across a network. Networks
Outline the characteristics of different transmission media. Networks
Explain how data is transmitted by packet switching. Networks
Outline the advantages and disadvantages of wireless networks. Networks
Describe the hardware and software components of a wireless network. Networks
Describe the characteristics of wireless networks. Networks
Describe the different methods of network security. Networks
Evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of each method of network security. Networks
Computational thinking, problem-solving and programming
Identify the procedure appropriate to solving a problem. Computational Thinking
Evaluate whether the order in which activities are undertaken will result in the required outcome. Computational Thinking
Explain the role of sub-procedures in solving a problem. Computational Thinking
Identify when decision-making is required in a specified situation. Computational Thinking
Identify the decisions required for the solution to a specified problem. Computational Thinking
Identify the condition associated with a given decision in a specified problem. Computational Thinking
Explain the relationship between the decisions and conditions of a system. Computational Thinking
Deduce logical rules for real-world situations. Computational Thinking
Identify the inputs and outputs required in a solution. Computational Thinking
Identify pre-planning in a suggested problem and solution. Computational Thinking
Explain the need for pre-conditions when executing an algorithm. Computational Thinking
Outline the pre- and post-conditions to a specified problem. Computational Thinking
Identify exceptions that need to be considered in a specified problem solution. Computational Thinking
Identify the parts of a solution that could be implemented concurrently. Computational Thinking
Describe how concurrent processing can be used to solve a problem. Computational Thinking
Evaluate the decision to use concurrent processing in solving a problem. Computational Thinking
Identify examples of abstraction. Computational Thinking
Explain why abstraction is required in the derivation of computational solutions for a specified situation. Computational Thinking
Construct an abstraction from a specified situation. Computational Thinking
Distinguish between a real-world entity and its abstraction. Computational Thinking
Describe the characteristics of standard algorithms on linear arrays. Computational Thinking
Outline the standard operations of collections. Computational Thinking
Discuss an algorithm to solve a specific problem. Computational Thinking
Analyse an algorithm presented as a flow chart. Computational Thinking
Analyse an algorithm presented as pseudocode. Computational Thinking
Construct pseudocode to represent an algorithm. Computational Thinking
Suggest suitable algorithms to solve a specific problem. Computational Thinking
Deduce the efficiency of an algorithm in the context of its use. Computational Thinking
Determine the number of times a step in an algorithm will be performed for given input data. Computational Thinking
State the fundamental operations of a computer. Computational Thinking
Distinguish between fundamental and compound operations of a computer. Computational Thinking
Explain the essential features of a computer language. Computational Thinking
Explain the need for higher level languages. Computational Thinking
Outline the need for a translation process from a higher level language to machine executable code. Computational Thinking
Define the terms: variable, constant, operator, object. Computational Thinking
Define common operators. Computational Thinking
Analyse the use of variables, constants and operators in algorithms. Computational Thinking
Construct algorithms using loops, branching. Computational Thinking
Describe the characteristics and applications of a collection. Computational Thinking
Construct algorithms using the access methods of a collection. Computational Thinking
Discuss the need for sub-programmes and collections within programmed solutions. Computational Thinking
Construct algorithms using pre- defined sub-programmes, one- dimensional arrays and/or collections. Computational Thinking
Web science
Distinguish between the internet and World Wide Web (web). Web Science
Describe how the web is constantly evolving. Web Science
Identify the characteristics of the following: HTTP, HTTPS, HTML, URL, XML, XSLT, CSS. Web Science
Identify the characteristics of a uniform resource identifier (URI) URL. Web Science
Describe the purpose of a URL. Web Science
Describe how a domain name server functions. Web Science
Identify the characteristics of the internet protocol (IP) transmission control protocol (TCP) file transfer protocol (FTP). Web Science
Outline the different components of a web page. Web Science
Explain the importance of protocols and standards on the web. Web Science
Describe the different types of web page. Web Science
Explain the differences between a static web page and a dynamic web page. Web Science
Explain the functions of a browser. Web Science
Evaluate the use of client-side scripting and server-side scripting in web pages. Web Science
Describe how web pages can be connected to underlying data sources. Web Science
Describe the function of the common gateway interface (CGI). Web Science
Evaluate the structure of different types of web pages. Web Science
Define the term search engine. Web Science
Distinguish between the surface web and the deep web. Web Science
Outline the principles of searching algorithms used by search engines. Web Science
Describe how a web crawler functions. Web Science
Discuss the relationship between data in a meta-tag and how it is accessed by a web crawler. Web Science
Discuss the use of parallel web crawling. Web Science
Outline the purpose of web-indexing in search engines. Web Science
Suggest how web developers can create pages that appear more prominently in search engine results. Web Science
Describe the different metrics used by search engines. Web Science
Explain why the effectiveness of a search engine is determined by the assumptions made when developing it. Web Science
Discuss the use of white hat and black hat search engine optimization. Web Science
Outline future challenges to search engines as the web continues to grow. Web Science
Define the terms: mobile computing, ubiquitous computing, peer-2-peer network, grid computing. Web Science
Compare the major features of: mobile computing ubiquitous computing peer-2-peer network grid computing. Web Science
Distinguish between interoperability and open standards. Web Science
Describe the range of hardware used by distributed networks. Web Science
Explain why distributed systems may act as a catalyst to a greater decentralization of the web. Web Science
Distinguish between lossless and lossy compression. Web Science
Evaluate the use of decompression software in the transfer of information. Web Science
Discuss how the web has supported new methods of online interaction such as social networking. Web Science
Describe how cloud computing is different from a client-server architecture. Web Science
Discuss the effects of the use of cloud computing for specified organizations. Web Science
Discuss the management of issues such as copyright and intellectual property on the web. Web Science
Describe the interrelationship between privacy, identification and authentication. Web Science
Describe the role of network architecture, protocols and standards in the future development of the web. Web Science
Explain why the web may be creating unregulated monopolies. Web Science
Discuss the effects of a decentralized and democratic web. Web Science
Outline the differences between data and information. Databases
Outline the differences between an information system and a database. Databases
Discuss the need for databases. Databases
Describe the use of transactions, states and updates to maintain data consistency (and integrity). Databases
Define the term database transaction. Databases
Explain concurrency in a data sharing situation. Databases
Explain the importance of the ACID properties of a database transaction. Databases
Describe the two functions databases require to be performed on them. Databases
Explain the role of data validation and data verification. Databases
Define the terms: database management system (DBMS) and relational database management system (RDBMS). Databases
Outline the functions and tools of a DBMS. Databases
Describe how a DBMS can be used to promote data security. Databases
Define the term schema. Databases
Identify the characteristics of the three levels of the schema: conceptual, logical, physical. Databases
Outline the nature of the data dictionary. Databases
Explain the importance of a data definition language in implementing a data model. Databases
Explain the importance of data modelling in the design of a database. Databases
Define the following database terms: table, record, field, primary key, secondary key, foreign key, candidate key, composite primary key, join. Databases
Identify the different types of relationships within databases: one-to- one, one-to-many, many-to-many. Databases
Outline the issues caused by redundant data. Databases
Outline the importance of referential integrity in a normalized database. Databases
Describe the differences between 1st Normal Form (1NF), 2nd Normal Form (2NF) and 3rd Normal Form (3NF). Databases
Describe the characteristics of a normalized database. Databases
Evaluate the appropriateness of the different data types. Databases
Construct an entity-relationship diagram (ERD) for a given scenario. Databases
Construct a relational database to 3NF using objects such as tables, queries, forms, reports and macros. Databases
Explain how a query can provide a view of a database. Databases
Describe the difference between a simple and complex query. Databases
Outline the different methods that can be used to construct a query. Databases
Explain the role of a database administrator. Databases
Explain how end-users can interact with a database. Databases
Describe different methods of database recovery. Databases
Outline how integrated database systems function. Databases
Outline the use of databases in areas such as stock control, police records, health records, employee data. Databases
Suggest methods to ensure the privacy of the personal data and the responsibility of those holding personal data not to sell or divulge it in any way. Databases
Discuss the need for some databases to be open to interrogation by other parties (police, government, etc). Databases
Explain the difference between data matching and data mining. Databases
Describe the characteristics of different database models. Databases
Evaluate the use of object-oriented databases as opposed to relational databases. Databases
Define the term data warehouse. Databases
Describe a range of situations suitable for data warehousing. Databases
Explain why data warehousing is time dependent. Databases
Describe how data in a warehouse is updated in real time. Databases
Describe the advantages of using data warehousing. Databases
Explain the need for ETL processes in data warehousing. Databases
Describe how ETL processes can be used to clean up data for a data warehouse. Databases
Compare the different forms of discovering patterns using data mining. Databases
Describe situations that benefit from data mining. Databases
Describe how predictive modelling is used. Databases
Explain the nature of database segmentation. Databases
Explain the nature and purpose of link analysis. Databases
Describe the process of deviation detection. Databases

References[edit]

Provide an answer from a number of possibilities. Recognize and state briefly a distinguishing fact or feature.

The circumstances that form the setting for an event, statement, or idea, and in terms of which it can be fully understood and assessed.

Give a detailed account or picture of a situation, event, pattern or process.

Give a brief account.

A state in which two things are able to exist or occur together without problems or conflict.

Assess the implications and limitations; make judgments about the ideas, works, solutions or methods in relation to selected criteria.

Offer a considered and balanced review that includes a range of arguments, factors or hypotheses. Opinions or conclusions should be presented clearly and supported by appropriate evidence.

Propose a solution, hypothesis or other possible answer.

Give the precise meaning of a word, phrase, concept or physical quantity.

a group or system of interconnected people or things.

Develop information in a diagrammatic or logical form.

Prove or make clear by reasoning or evidence, illustrating with examples or practical application.

Produce a plan, simulation or model.

Give a detailed account including reasons or causes.

a group or system of interconnected people or things.

a group or system of interconnected people or things.

Reach a conclusion from the information given.

anomalous or exceptional conditions requiring special processing – often changing the normal flow of program execution

Make clear the differences between two or more concepts or items.

Break down in order to bring out the essential elements or structure. To identify parts and relationships, and to interpret information to reach conclusions.

Obtain the only possible answer.

A unit of abstract mathematical system subject to the laws of arithmetic.

Give a specific name, value or other brief answer without explanation or calculation.

Give a specific name, value or other brief answer without explanation or calculation.

Develop information in a diagrammatic or logical form.