Mobile computing, ubiquitous computing, peer-2-peer network, grid computing

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Web Science[1]

Mobile computing refers to the use of portable devices, such as smartphones and laptops, to access and process data and connect to networks while on the go. Mobile computing devices are typically lightweight, portable, and have the ability to connect to wireless networks.

Ubiquitous computing refers to the idea of having computing power and connectivity available anywhere, at any time. This can be achieved through the use of small, interconnected devices and sensors that are embedded in the environment, such as smart thermostats, smart homes, and smart cities.

Peer-to-peer (P2P) networks are decentralized networks where computers or devices connect directly to each other to share resources and information, rather than relying on a central server. P2P networks can be used for a variety of purposes, such as file sharing, online gaming, and decentralized applications.

Grid computing refers to the use of a network of computers to work together to perform a common task, such as data processing or scientific simulations. Grid computing systems are designed to be scalable and flexible, and they can be used to solve problems that require a lot of computing power or that need to be completed quickly.

In summary, mobile computing involves portable devices that can access and process data on the go, ubiquitous computing involves the integration of computing power and connectivity into the environment, P2P networks are decentralized networks that allow computers to connect and share resources directly, and grid computing involves the use of a network of computers to work together to solve complex problems.

Area Characteristics
mobile computing Mobile computing is human–computer interaction by which a computer is expected to be transported during normal usage, which allows for transmission of data, voice and video [2]
  • Portability: Devices/nodes connected within the mobile computing system should facilitate mobility. These devices may have limited device capabilities and limited power supply, but should have a sufficient processing capability and physical portability to operate in a movable environment.
  • Connectivity: This defines the quality of service (QoS) of the network connectivity. In a mobile computing system, the network availability is expected to be maintained at a high level with the minimal amount of lag/downtime without being affected by the mobility of the connected nodes.
  • Interactivity: The nodes belonging to a mobile computing system are connected with one another to communicate and collaborate through active transactions of data.
  • Individuality: A portable device or a mobile node connected to a mobile network often denote an individual; a mobile computing system should be able to adopt the technology to cater the individual needs and also to obtain contextual information of each node.
ubiquitous computing Ubiquitous computing is a field of study that focuses on the development of technology that is seamlessly integrated into the environment and always available, but not necessarily always visible. The goal of ubiquitous computing is to create computing devices and systems that are so seamlessly integrated into the environment that they become invisible to users, yet still able to provide valuable services.


Smart homes: Smart home devices, such as thermostats, lights, and appliances can be controlled remotely using a smartphone or other device, this allow for more convenience, automation and also energy efficiency.

Smart cities: Sensors and other technologies are used in smart cities to optimize traffic flow, improve public transportation, and enhance public safety. For instance, traffic lights could communicate with one another to adjust their timing based on the number of cars on the road, or sensors could be used to monitor air quality and water levels.

Wearable devices: Wearable devices, such as smartwatches and fitness trackers, are becoming increasingly popular. These devices can track a wide range of health and fitness data, such as steps taken, heart rate, and sleep patterns, and can also be used to receive notifications and control other devices.

peer-2-peer network

Peer-to-peer (P2P) computing or networking is:

  • a distributed application architecture
  • which partitions tasks or workloads between peers
  • peers are equally privileged
  • peers are equipotent
  • peers form a peer-to-peer network of nodes
  • peers make a portion of their resources, such as processing power, disk storage or network bandwidth, directly available to other network participants, without the need for central coordination by servers or stable hosts.
  • peers are both suppliers and consumers of resource. [3]


One example of a P2P network is the BitTorrent network, which is used for sharing files over the internet. In a BitTorrent network, each peer acts as both a client (downloading files from other peers) and a server (uploading files to other peers). When a user wants to download a file, they connect to the network and request the file from other peers, who then upload it to the user. This allows for efficient and decentralized file sharing, as the load is distributed across multiple peers instead of relying on a single server.

Another example of a P2P network is a decentralized cryptocurrency network, such as Bitcoin. In a decentralized cryptocurrency network, each peer maintains a copy of the blockchain, which is a public ledger of all transactions on the network. When a transaction is made, it is broadcast to the entire network, and each peer verifies the transaction before adding it to their copy of the blockchain. This allows for a decentralized and trustless system for conducting transactions, as there is no need for a central intermediary to verify transactions.

grid computing
  • grid computing is the collection of computer resources
  • from multiple locations to reach a common goal
  • the grid can be thought of as a distributed system
  • with non-interactive workloads
  • involve a large number of files.[4]


One example of grid computing is the use of a grid to process scientific data. For instance, a group of scientists might use a grid to connect the computing resources of multiple universities and research institutions to analyze large data sets from a scientific experiment, such as data from a particle accelerator or a telescope. By connecting these resources together, the scientists can analyze the data much faster than they could if they were limited to the computing resources of a single institution.


These standards are used from the IB Computer Science Subject Guide[5]

  • Define the terms: mobile computing, ubiquitous computing, peer-2-peer network, grid computing.
  • Compare the major features of: mobile computing ubiquitous computing peer-2-peer network grid computing.


  5. IB Diploma Programme Computer science guide (first examinations 2014). Cardiff, Wales, United Kingdom: International Baccalaureate Organization. January 2012.