Semantic Web

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Web Science[1]

The aims of the semantic web

The goal of the Semantic Web is to associate meaning with the data on the Web and to exploit the wealth of data on the Web through more intelligent (meaningful) processing. A semantic approach to data processing, such as the use of ontologies or knowledge bases, has increasingly been integrated with other AI techniques, especially machine learning (ML) and natural language processing (NLP).[2]

  • Examples of non-semantic elements: <div> and <span> - Tells nothing about its content.[3]
  • Examples of semantic elements: <form>, <table>, and <article> - Clearly defines its content.[4]

    RDF Model

RDF – the Resource Description Framework – is a foundation for processing metadata; it provides interoperability between applications that exchange machine-understandable information on the Web. RDF emphasizes facilities to enable automated processing of Web resources. RDF metadata can be used in a variety of application areas; for example: in resource discovery to provide better search engine capabilities; in cataloging for describing the content and content relationships available at a particular Web site, page, or digital library; by intelligent software agents to facilitate knowledge sharing and exchange; in content rating; in describing collections of pages that represent a single logical "document"; for describing intellectual property rights of Web pages, and in many others. RDF with digital signatures will be key to building the "Web of Trust" for electronic commerce, collaboration, and other applications.[5]

Below is an example of RDF[6]

<http://www.w3.org/People/EM/contact#me> <http://www.w3.org/2000/10/swap/pim/contact#fullName> "Eric Miller" .
<http://www.w3.org/People/EM/contact#me> <http://www.w3.org/2000/10/swap/pim/contact#mailbox> <mailto:e.miller123(at)example> .
<http://www.w3.org/People/EM/contact#me> <http://www.w3.org/2000/10/swap/pim/contact#personalTitle> "Dr." .
<http://www.w3.org/People/EM/contact#me> <http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#type> <http://www.w3.org/2000/10/swap/pim/contact#Person> .

More about RDF

More about the semantic web

From the W3C[7]:

  • The Semantic Web is an extension of the current Web that will allow you to find, share, and combine information more easily.
  • Designed to be a universal medium for the exchange of data
  • Enable vocabulary semantics to be defined and reused by communities of expertise, not necessarily W3C
  • Provide for the fine-grained mixing of diverse metadata
  • Making it cost-effective for people to effectively record their knowledge.

Do you understand this?

The semantic web is a “web of data” that can be read and analyzed by machines. Students should appreciate the difference between this and a ”web of documents” which would describeGive a detailed account or picture of a situation, event, pattern or process. the presentOffer for display, observation, examination or consideration. stateGive a specific name, value or other brief answer without explanation or calculation. of the web.

Standards

These standards are used from the IB Computer Science Subject Guide[8]

  • DescribeGive a detailed account or picture of a situation, event, pattern or process. the aims of the semantic web

References