What is the web? How is the web made? This section delves into core components of the world-wide-web. It is likely you use the web every day. Like everything in computer science, we want you to understand the depth of this topic.
The big ideas in Web Science
Developing the Web
Please note this section is not linked to the IB option of web science.
- Local and remote hosts
- User interface mockups
- Web front-end libraries (also web frameworks)
Everything below this section IS linked to the IB computer science option.
Creating the web
- The internet and World Wide Web
- How the web is evolving
- HTTP, HTTPS, HTML, URL, XML, XSLT, CSS
- Uniform resource identifier (URI) and URL
- Network Protocols
- Components of a web page
- Protocols and standards on the web
- Different types of web pages
- Static web page and a dynamic web page
- Web browsers
- Client-side scripting and server-side scripting
- Connecting to underlying data sources (Databases)
- Common gateway interface (CGI)
- Structure of different types of web pages
Searching the Web
- Search engine
- Principles of searching algorithms used by search engines
- Web crawler functions
- Metrics used by search engines
- Search engine optimization
- Future challenges to search engines
- Surface web and deep web
- Parallel web crawling
Distributed approaches to the web
- Content delivery network
- Mobile computing, ubiquitous computing, peer-2-peer network, grid computing
- Interoperability and open standards
- Distributed networks
- Decentralization of the web
- lossless and lossy compression
- decompression software in the transfer of information
The evolving web
- Online interaction and social networking 
- Cloud computing and client-server architecture 
- Cloud computing for specified organizations 
- Copyright and intellectual property on the web
- Privacy, identification and authentication
- Network architecture, protocols and standards in future development
- Unregulated monopolies
- The decentralized and democratic web
Analyzing the web (HL Only)
- The web as a directed graph
- Web graph and sub-graphs
- Graph theory and connectivity of the web
- Search engines, web crawling and web graph
- Power laws and predicting the development of the web
Intelligent web (HL Only)
- Semantic Web
- Text-web and the multimedia-web
- Ontology and folksonomy
- Folksonomies and emergent social structures
- Expressivity and usability on the semantic web
- Methods of searching for information
- Ambient intelligence and collective intelligence
Creating the Web
- Distinguish between the internet and World Wide Web (web).
- Describe how the web is constantly evolving.
- Identify the characteristics of the following: HTTP, HTTPS, HTML, URL, XML, XSLT, CSS.
- Identify the characteristics of a uniform resource identifier (URI) URL.
- Describe the purpose of a URL.
- Describe how a domain name server functions.
- Identify the characteristics of the internet protocol (IP) transmission control protocol (TCP) file transfer protocol (FTP).
- Outline the different components of a web page.
- Explain the importance of protocols and standards on the web.
- Describe the different types of web page.
- Explain the differences between a static web page and a dynamic web page.
- Explain the functions of a browser.
- Evaluate the use of client-side scripting and server-side scripting in web pages.
- Describe how web pages can be connected to underlying data sources.
- Describe the function of the common gateway interface (CGI).
- Evaluate the structure of different types of web pages.
- Define the term search engine.
- Distinguish between the surface web and the deep web.
- Outline the principles of searching algorithms used by search engines.
- Describe how a web crawler functions.
- Discuss the relationship between data in a meta-tag and how it is accessed by a web crawler.
- Discuss the use of parallel web crawling.
- Outline the purpose of web-indexing in search engines.
- Suggest how web developers can create pages that appear more prominently in search engine results.
- Describe the different metrics used by search engines.
- Explain why the effectiveness of a search engine is determined by the assumptions made when developing it.
- Discuss the use of white hat and black hat search engine optimization.
- Outline future challenges to search engines as the web continues to grow.
Distributed approaches to the web
- Define the terms: mobile computing, ubiquitous computing, peer-2-peer network, grid computing.
- Compare the major features of: mobile computing ubiquitous computing peer-2-peer network grid computing.
- Distinguish between interoperability and open standards.
- Describe the range of hardware used by distributed networks.
- Explain why distributed systems may act as a catalyst to a greater decentralization of the web.
- Distinguish between lossless and lossy compression.
- Evaluate the use of decompression software in the transfer of information.
The evolving web
- Discuss how the web has supported new methods of online interaction such as social networking.
- Describe how cloud computing is different from a client-server architecture.
- Discuss the effects of the use of cloud computing for specified organizations.
- Discuss the management of issues such as copyright and intellectual property on the web.
- Describe the interrelationship between privacy, identification and authentication.
- Describe the role of network architecture, protocols and standards in the future development of the web.
- Explain why the web may be creating unregulated monopolies.
- Discuss the effects of a decentralized and democratic web.
Analyzing the web (HL)
- Describe how the web can be represented as a directed graph.
- Outline the difference between the web graph and sub-graphs.
- Describe the main features of the web graph such as bowtie structure, strongly connected core (SCC), diameter.
- Explain the role of graph theory in determining the connectivity of the web.
- Explain that search engines and web crawling use the web graph to access information.
- Discuss whether power laws are appropriate to predict the development of the web.
Semantic web (HL)
- Distinguish between the text-web and the multimedia-web.
- Describe the aims of the semantic web.
- Distinguish between an ontology and folksonomy.
- Describe how folksonomies and emergent social structures are changing the web.
- Explain why there needs to be a balance between expressivity and usability on the semantic web.
- Evaluate methods of searching for information on the web.
- Distinguish between ambient intelligence and collective intelligence.
- Discuss how ambient intelligence can be used to support people.
- Explain how collective intelligence can be applied to complex issues.