Stack memory is a region of computer memory used for storing data that has a short lifespan such as function call frames, function parameters, and local variables. It operates on a Last-In-First-Out (LIFO) principle, where the most recently added data is the first to be removed. This makes stack memory ideal for storing temporary data and function calls, as the data is automatically cleaned up when the function returns.
In a typical computer program, the stack is used to store data in a function call, where each function call creates a new stack frame that contains the function parameters, local variables, and other data. When the function returns, the stack frame is popped off, freeing the memory used by that function call.
Stack memory is limited in size, so it's important to ensure that the stack doesn't overflow by using it only for short-term storage. Stack overflow is a common programming error that can cause a program to crash or produce incorrect results.
Stack memory is a fast and efficient memory region for temporary data storage and function calls, but its limited size must be taken into consideration when designing a program.